Emergencies

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Doctor of Laws
Emergency First Responder – Rescue manager since 1981
EFR instructor / Oxygen Provider Instructor
Feedback languages: English – Deutsch – Nederlands

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EMERGENCY RESCUE MANAGER INSTRUCTOR Participants training by Michael: “You were very thorough in the first-aid kit explanations, what you have, how to use it and specific examples. I find your scenario better, more real if you like, than I have in the past. The scenarios were most real, and challenging I’ve had, which was great. I learned new things regarding burns and child CPR.” “I thought the approach of having detailed scripts in realistic scenarios was a very effective  teaching tool. I found the course useful in terms of consolidating knowledge. Switching between lecturing and practical scenarios helped to maintain concentration.” “The scenarios were tough enough to be really useful.”

� Symptoms of Decompression Ilness => Let at certified O2 provider administer 100% oxygen for at least 30 minutes & ALWAYS see a doctor

  • Numbness/ tingling
  • Muscle weakness / paralysis
  • Dizziness / imbalance
  • Nausea / vomiting
  • fatigue / reduced consciousness
  • visual disturbance / altered higher function / altered speech
  • itchy or marbled rash
  • specific or generalized pain
  • headache

� Symptoms of Hyperoxic or O2-toxicity
Knowledge about partial pressure of Oxygen in the mix we breath. Dalton’s Law states: The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of each of the different gases making up the mixture – each gas acting as if it alone were present and occupied the total volume. Within a mix, each gas continues to demonstrate its own individual behavior in terms of its pressure. Partial pressure (sometimes abbreviated “pp” or as a “P” before a gas, such as “PO2” for “partial pressure of oxygen”). Using Dalton’s Law, we can find individual partial pressures easily by multiplying the percentage of the individual gas by the total absolute pressure. PO2 = Ptotal × 21% volume of gasO2. This is particularly important in both recreational and technical diving because oxygen becomes toxic when the PO2 exceeds 1.4 bar/ata. Even air (with 21% O2) has too much oxygen when below 67 meters. The depth at which a mix gets toxic is calculated with formula 14 / PO2– 10 f.e. Nitrox32: 14/32 – 10 = 33,75 meters max depth.
Oxygen intoxication results in convulsion (stuiptrekkingen) and therefore risk of drowning => during a dive ASCEND slowly to shallower depth. Symptoms to remember by abbreviation VENTID

  • visual disturbance;
  • ears, hearing disturbance;
  • nausea;
  • twitching especially in the face;
  • irritable;
  • dizziness.

� Information EFR Marine life injuries symptoms:

  • Loss of consciousness, weakness and nausea
  • Mental confusion
  • Spreading numbness
  • Paralysis
  • Local swelling, inflammation or welts

AID: First aid soak with hot water (43 to 49 C for 30 to 90 minutes)

� Injuries from Stonefish; Scorpion fish; Stingray; Fish spines:

AID: Keep the limb below heart level. Treat for shock, maintain ABCD’s

� Symptoms of Venomous wounds from Sea snake; Sea wasp (box jellyfish); Stonefish, Cone shell, blue ringed octopus:

  • Suffer excruciating pain
  • local swelling, inflammation an tentacles or welts on the affected area
  • weakness, nausea, shock, unconsciousness and confusion
  • a spreading numbness or paralysis or convulsions
  • respiratory and cardiac arrest

AID: Pressure immobilization

Jellyfish, Portuguese man-o-war and similar organism
AID: Irrigate the wound with SEA water and five percent solution acetic acid. You can use Vinegar or ammonia1 to 3 parts water. After that use shaving cream and shave area.

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